Stone tables in the Kavkaz

More than 5000 years ago, old builders from Caucasus made dolmens, buildings made of filigree cut and joined huge stone blocks. Nobody knows which was their purpose. Dolmens (in translation “stone tables”) are small buildings which remind of the bird houses. Harmoniously  placed in the nature around Black sea and westCaucasus. But, they are not  just the stones clusters, but the buildings risen by jeweller precision, and some of them are 5000 years old. On westCaucasuswas discovered  and described around 2300 dolmens. Most of them are in the area of Gelendžika, Novorosiyskaya and Shapsugska. Around 150 of these objects are totally or partially preserved. However, despite big number of these artefacts, the history of their origin stays the secret. It is only known that the time of their construction, stated by the method of radio active carbon used on the samples of organic origin from dolmen’s rooms.

It was stated that dolmens on west Caucasus are built in the period from 3500 and 1400 year before new era. If you ask the locals about the origin of dolmens, they will most probably tell you the legend about the dwarfs who used to live here. They were so small that they used the rabbits for riding. As it was in fairy tales, not far from them the giants lived as well, who built the stone houses for their weak neighbours to hide from bad weather. As the people for some reasons have the need to explain esoteric explanation of how dolmens became, there were the believes , of course without proof, that the dolmens were created by aliens and gave them magic powers which solve love problems or heal disease. Explorers who studied those buildings offered hypothesis on their purpose, from which only two stayed till now. They could have presented or places or tribe rituals or tombs, separate of family ones. During the extraction in many of them were found humans remains who used to live in this area in different periods. Apart from them, there were discovered different things intended for dead ones.

There are many types of dolmens: 1. Plate dolmens most often have four walls, roof and the floor which consists of one big and few smaller plates. The room is in square or trapezoidal shape. In the plates there are gutters which firmly connect all plates. Front plate, framed with side blocks, and pointed marquee shape front entrance. 2. Composite dolmens partly or fully consist of small separate blocks. They have complicated geometrical compounds, and the shape of the room can be different: square, trapezoidal, horse shoe, round or multi square.4. Monolithic dolmens carved from one block of stone or rock and they are very rare. Old builders rose dolmens made of blocks of quartz schist. The weight of every building is between 15 to 30 tones. This should point to the fact that in west Caucasus existed quarries, but there are still no traces which would confirm that, so there is not the explanation how this huge stones were transported to building site because there were no proper roads at that time for such heavy cargo, if it wasn’t close to quarries.

dolmeni na planini neksisMain question remains how the old architects counted the dimension of the plate considering the fact that they were not connected on flat surface, but because of that were made special, top precision grooves. Joins between plates were so narrow that between them the blade of knife can’t go in. The fact that the oldest buildings don’t have primitive but complex structure is amazing. Dolmens on the mountain Neksis and close to river Zana in the region Gelendzik are the best examples of this top building technology. Today is almost impossible to build precision joined construction. At the attempt to reconstruct dolmens, it was shown that it is almost impossible without the mistake connect those few tones heavy stone blocks. But, in year 2007 started the building of one dolmens of blocks ruined in safari park in Gelendzik, with the aim that the procession and construction of blocks were done by the most perfect electronic equipment. They have made the conclusion that the builders from bronze period were more advanced because the blocks of newly built dolmens stayed apart for few centimeters. When it is the word about the builders who used these perfect technologies, according to Vladimir Markovina, archaeologist who spend big part of his life studying Caucasus dolmens, these people lived in the hut of mud, didn’t know steel or pottery wheel and they cultivated the land with the a hoe. Even though they rose buildings which can be admired in our time.

If you would like to make sure in that skill of old dolmen builders you can contact agency Atlantis travel.

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