Gotičko naslijeđe u Moskvi

Even though gothic style is not typical for Russian architecture, and it appears relatively late in it, in 18th century, gothic pearls of Moscow with its prominent and unusual look contributes to specific architectural identity of Russian capital. Gothic influence is visible only on some buildings inMoscow, for example, on the biggest Roman church in the capital, cathedral of Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virgin Mary.

First Russian architect who brought into his buildings the elements of gothic was Vasilij Bazhenov. In 70s of 18th century he projected for empress Catherine the Great at her personal order the residence Tsaritsyno in Podmoscow. According to the empress’s wish, it is ensemble of buildings in “gothic manners”, built according to piece of art of French and Italian gothic. Vasilij Bazhenov was educated in Europe and these stays outside Russia were the way how the European medieval architectural heritage was transferred into Russian architecture and building. European gothic on Russian land was not massively accepted and it didn’t become one of the leading architectural styles.


Tsaritsyno, Moscow (source: worldjourney.ru)

Russian gothic architecture can not be considered “gothic” because of its late appearance, and when it is talked about buildings in this style, the most commonly used term is “neo gothic”. But, since medieval gothic style like that in Russian didn’t exist, in Russian architecture was not possible its Renaissance, so this style is defined by some as “pseudo gothic”.

Elements of gothic decor, like inEurope, is most frequently seen on religious buildings, on Roman, Anglican and Lutheran churches. Gothic is seen in the architecture of some private villas and sale objects. During the sightseeing ofMoscowit would be possible to make theme tourist tour in order to visit in one walk this “gothic pearl” .

 

Cathedral of  Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virgin Mary was built in first decade of 20th century. Its fasade was made according to gothic cathedral in Westminster Abbey. Decoration of the inside of the temple lasted till 1917. During the Soviet Anti religion campaign in 1938 all the property was confiscated of the temple and in the building of the cathedral was opened the student dome. Later, in 1956, in the temple was situated scientific Research institute “Mosspecpromproject”, which influenced that the architecture of this building was changed. First worship after 60 years was held in 1990 on the steps of the cathedral which is open today for visitors. Apart from sightseeing of its interior, it is the experience to be o the place of worship in few languages, among many in English, Spanish, Korean and Vietnam.

 

 Villa by Savo Morozov was built as a castle in gothic style which is supported by a legend about luxury life of Savo Morozov, one of the most famous maecenas from family of rich industrialist. Sava Morozov was fascinated by English gothic, and according to his wish the project if villa for his wife was made by young  architect Fjodor Šehtelj. The villa construction lasted till 1898. The building not seen till than inMoscowimmediately became one of the main town’s sights. Thanks to project of this villa, Šehtelj became famous and successful architect. Apart from architecture history, Morozov’s villa entered the history of literature because it is considered that Mihail Bulgakov described that villa in the novel “Master and Margarita” where the heroine transfers into the witch and flies in through the window. Villa is today only used for diplomatic receptions on the highest level. Unfortunately, people who are not connected to high politic can not go in.

 

 

 Cathedral of Saint Peter and Paul is one of two active Lutheran church in the town and the centre of one of the oldest Lutheran eparchy in Russia. Construction of cathedral started in 1817, and the funds for construction were invested by king Friedrich Wilhelm III and Russian emperor Aleksandar I. During 19th century this building was reconstructed few times: cathedral was made bigger with the few rectories. Worships were canceled in 1936. Three years later in cathedral was opened the cinema. According to that, the interior was totally changed, and pointed towers removed. To this cathedral, like to many other sacral buildings, first sacral intention was returned only in 1991. That year new big works started on the reconstruction of its exterior which lasted till 2010. Reconstruction of the details of interior still lasts because of which sometimes the concerts of organs are cancelled.

 

 

Shopping centre GUM is one of the most popular places for shopping inMoscow. Buying there, you can at the same time enjoy in the sightseeing of gothic architecture. Six floors building on the corner of Petrovka and Theatre square (in front of Bolshoi theatre) was built by traders Andrew Muir and Archibald Mirrielees in 1908 specially for their shop “Muir and Mirrielees”. Gothic style which they chose, among others, was good commercial. While building this, inRussiawas first time used ferroconcrete. During its history the building GUM has never changed its purpose: it was trading there even during the world war II. Today shopping centre GUM is one of the most popular places for shopping in Russian capital. There are over 1000 clothes shops of famous brands, perfumes and goldsmiths.

Anglican church of Saint Andrew was first Anglican chapel in Russian capital. It was built in 1827, and in 1827 British architect Richard Neal Freeman rose church made of bricks which is still today inVoznesenskaya street. On the request by Scots, who were richest members of British community inMoscowat that time, the church was dedicated to apostle Andrew. Patron ofScotland. During October revolution Bolsheviks placed on the church tower the machine gun in order to stop the army of temporary army. After the revolution the church was used as warehouse and worker’s home, and from1960 inthe church was music studio “Melodies”. Permit for new worship was given in1991. Inthis church the worship is only in English. On Thursdays and Sundays the charity humanitarian organ concerts are held and everybody is invited.

If you would like to travel to Russia, visit Moscow and see its gothic and other beauties, Atlantis Travel  will gladly organize all needed for travel.

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